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Corn, now a staple of much of the world's diet, was unknown to Westerners until the time of the Spanish conquest, as were sweet potatoes and peanuts.
Likewise, Europeans had never seen turkeys, llamas, or squirrels before setting foot in the Americas. The Age of Exploration served as a stepping stone for geographic knowledge.
It allowed more people to see and study various areas around the world, which increased geographic study, giving us the basis for much of the knowledge we have today.
The effects of colonization still persist as well, with many of the world's former colonies still considered the "developing" world and the colonizers the First World countries, holding a majority of the world's wealth and receiving a majority of its annual income.
Share Flipboard Email. Table of Contents Expand. The Birth of the Age of Exploration. The Discovery of the New World. Opening the Americas.
The End of the Era. Contributions to Science. Long-Term Impact. Amanda Briney is a professional geographer.
She holds an M. Updated January 24, Impact of the Age of Exploration Explorers learned more about areas such as Africa and the Americas and brought that knowledge back to Europe.
Massive wealth accrued to European colonizers due to trade in goods, spices, and precious metals.
Methods of navigation and mapping improved, switching from traditional portolan charts to the world's first nautical maps.
New food, plants, and animals were exchanged between the colonies and Europe. Subsequently the Portuguese explored the Gulf of Guinea, and they discovered the Congo in Four years later, they were at Cape Cross, in modern day Namibia.
This was a significant event, as it meant that the Portuguese had finally reached the southern end of Africa and could now sail eastwards into the Indian Ocean.
Nevertheless, it would take the Portuguese some time before they arrived in India. In , Vasco da Gama landed in Calicut, in southwestern India, making him the first European to arrive in India by an oceanic route.
Vasco da Gama. For much of the 15th century the Portuguese were free to explore the oceans without any opposition from other European states. Spain at that time the Crowns of Castile and Aragon , which would have been the main rivals of the Portuguese, was occupied with other matters during that century.
As previously mentioned, the Reconquista only ended in after the fall of Granada. Additionally, the Spanish were more concerned at that time with the Mediterranean, as a number of areas outside Spain, including southern Italy, Sardinia, and Sicily, were under the Crown of Aragon.
Nevertheless, the Spanish had no intention of losing out to the Portuguese and the two powers were locked in competition, each wanting to be the first to reach the East by sea.
In January , shortly after the conquest of Granada, a Genoese explorer by the name of Christopher Columbus finally succeeded in obtaining the sponsorship of Ferdinand II and Isabella I to voyage across the Atlantic.
Columbus presented a radical proposal to the Spanish monarchs — he believed that it was possible to reach Asia by sailing westwards.
Columbus was rejected by Ferdinand and Isabella as well, at least twice, before securing their patronage in Contrary to popular belief, Columbus was not denied sponsorship because of the belief that the earth was flat, but rather because the experts at the Portuguese and Spanish courts believed that Columbus had grossly underestimated the distance between Europe and Asia.
In this matter, the Portuguese and Spanish experts were right. Columbus, however, was extremely lucky, as there was a previously unknown land mass, i.
As a result, Columbus is remembered in the West as the man who discovered the New World. In the years following the discovery of the New World, Columbus maintained that he had found the western route to Asia, and may have genuinely held that belief, despite the increasing evidence that the land he had discovered was not Asia, but another continent.
Columbus aside, the discovery of lands to the west of Europe be it Asia or another continent escalated the conflict between Portugal and Spain.
In response, the Spanish simply obtained new papal bulls to counter the old ones. Conveniently for them, the pope at the time was Alexander VI, a native of Valencia and a friend of the Spanish king.
Therefore, papal bulls that favored the Spanish were easily obtained. One of these bulls, Inter caetera , stated that all lands to the west and south of a pole-to-pole line of leagues west and south of any of the islands of the Azores or the Cape Verde islands would belong to Spain, apart from any lands ruled by Christians, which would be left untouched.
Pope Alexander VI. Detail from a fresco of the resurrection, painted in - by Pinturicchio. The Portuguese were not at all pleased with this arrangement and they began negotiations with the Spanish.
As a result, the Treaty of Tordesillas was signed on June 7, , and later sanctioned by the pope, Julius II, in According to this treaty, the world was to be divided into two hemispheres between the Spanish and the Portuguese.
Although the Portuguese accepted the line set by the pope in the Inter caetera , they requested the Spanish have it moved leagues to the west.
Therefore, a north-south meridian leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, roughly halfway between those islands and the ones newly discovered by Columbus, was established.
The treaty allowed Spain and Portugal to conquer any new lands they were the first to discover except those ruled by Christians - the former to the west, and the latter to the east, even if they passed each other on the other side of the globe.
Consequently, the Spanish colonized much of South America in the decades that followed, while the Portuguese continued their exploration of the East.
Incidentally, the coast of Brazil fell within the east half of the meridian, and therefore could be claimed by the Portuguese when it was discovered in A problem with the Treaty of Tordesillas became apparent in when the Moluccas were discovered by the Portuguese.
Although the islands were claimed by Portugal, a counterclaim was made by Spain in , as they are said to be in the western hemisphere.
A solution was reached in when the Treaty of Zaragoza was signed. Another line, the anti-meridian, was fixed at Although the two treaties pleased the Spanish and Portuguese, they excluded other European powers, who in turn did not recognize the validity of the texts.
Thus, these treaties did not stop them from conducting their own voyages of exploration when the time came. The English and the Dutch who inhabited the northern part of Europe were entertaining the idea of a northern sea passage to the East.
These explorers were much less successful than Columbus. Beginning in the middle of the 16th century, a number of voyages were launched in order to seek the Northeast Passage.
The passage, however, eluded the explorers, and was only found during the second half of the 19th century. Expeditions were also conducted to find the Northwest Passage, which linked Asia to America via the sea.
Like its northeastern counterpart, the quest for the Northwest Passage began as early as the 16th century. Nevertheless, it was only at the beginning of the 20th century that the passage was found.
Finally, while the Age of Discovery is regarded as a glorious era by Europeans, it was a very different story for the peoples they encountered during their voyages.
Many of these civilizations ended up being colonized by the Europeans, sometimes through brutal conquest.
Nevertheless, they were destroyed in a short period of time by a small number of Spanish conquistadors.
Francisco Coronado was one of the first Europeans to heavily explore the southwest portion of North America for the Spanish Empire.
Henry Hudson made several voyages along upper North America and into the Arctic while searching for the Northwest Passage route to Asia.
Hernando Cortes sailed from Spain to the Caribbean and then eventually to Mexico where he went on to conquer the Aztec Empire. Spanish explorer and conquistador who helped conquer parts of Central and South America, explored the southeastern region of the United States, and is credited as the first European to cross the Mississippi River.
French navigator and explorer credited with naming Canada, exploring the St. Lawrence River, and Canadian areas that would become French territory.
Lawrence River. He was a Spanish explorer who became the first governor of Puerto Rico, the first European known to reach the mainland of present day United States, and he gave Florida its name.
He was the first European to discover Brazil, and also established a successful sea route to India and a leader in trade there. Used at sea as early as the mid s, the quadrant was used by sailors to measure the height of Polaris, the Pole star.
French explorer and cartographer best known for establishing and governing settlements in Canada, mapping the St. Lawrence River, discovering the Great Lakes, and founding the city of Quebec.
Samuel de Champlain took several voyages to Canada, where he mapped the St.